Diversity of the numerous Fruit Plants of Bangladesh

Anup Sadi
Poet & Author, Bangladesh
October- 2009

Submission of a term paper in the Foundation Training Course is a noble idea of National Academy for Educational Management (NAEM) towards endowing the trainees with the ability to do research work or important and critical issues of the society. “A Study on Diversity of Fruit Plants in Bangladesh” is a time benefiting topic which deserves due attention and importance of our country. I have made a fair attempt to prepare my topic with the best available information within the limited period.

The objectives of preparing term paper for the training course are to increase  the capacity of trainee for identifying of socio-economic problem to find out the nature and course  of problem to create  awareness  of trainee  about the problem and to solve them through  investigation.

Fruit plants are an important wealth in our country. From long ago fruit  plants assail their leaf, stem, root, fruit etc are used to protect desire. But with the much destructing of forest they are also destroyed. According to the scientist  many of  them are already  extinct, so my term paper  topic  is very  important in this time  I am very happy to prepare this term paper within short  time. I would be more than rewarded if my study benefits the readers to some extent and stimulates  thinking in the respective spheres.


It is worth whole to mention that in doing any important work the guidance and supervision is very essential. Preparation of term paper is a compulsory work of foundation training course. I take this opportunity to express earnest and almost gratitude to the honorable Director General of NAEM for including term paper in the foundation training course. In preparing this report I received whole hearted cooperation from my respectable supervisor and guide Md. Rafiqul Islam. I express my gratitude and heartiest thanks to his guidance, valuable suggestions and sympathetic co-operation.

I am grateful to course director Mostafizur Rahman and course co ordinations. I am also grateful to all NAEM faculty members, library authority for their earnest Co-operation.


The Plants which grow fruits according to their fundamental nature are called fruit plants. There are about 140 fruit Plants in our country. They have much variety diversity. They have diversity in size & shape, in habitat, in adaptation power, in flowering, in production season, in somatically element and in the activity on human and animal life.

Most of the plants of the world produce fruits according to their respective nature and variety. Among them only a few number of item, we can use as food for their taste, smell, deliciousness, and overall food value. Those, which can be eaten by human, birds, animals, insects and all other beasts are called fruit. As a result it can be said that the plants which contain fruits are called fruit plants. We not only use the fruits as our food item, but also we use the rest fundamental part of the plants such as roots, leaves, tanks, flowers as many other productive and reproductive purposes. We can get wood which can be used for various constructional works and firewood, biochemicals which can be used for manufacturing medicine directly or indirectly, flowers that have both decorative and biochemical values, leaves those are important for making shelter, using as fire  elements, producing biochemicals and spices, barks are used as spices, medicine, fiber and many other perspective. Various kinds of fruit items are reproduced to be used as spices, perfumes, cosmetic staples. Fruits contains all kinds of essentials minerals, what are the vital elements for our existence. To make our nature Ecologically balanced and to keep our existence progressive, it is our foremost duty to save, culture, conserve the regarding  fruit plants diversity.

List of Tables

Table No 01The list of fruit plants on their diversity
Table No 02List of available, vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered, extinct and data deficient fruit plants in Bangladesh.

Acronyms and Abbreviation

SACEP – South Asian Cooperation Environment Program.
IUCN – International Union for conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
BNH – Bangladesh National Herbarium.
WHO – World Health Organization.
FTC – Foundation Training Course.
B.C.S – Bangladesh Civil Service.
NAEM – National Academy for Educational Management.
WCU – World Conservation Union.

আরো পড়ুন:  বাংলাদেশের পাউবো নির্ধারিত ৪০৫টি নদনদীর নামের তালিকা

List of Contents


1 PrefaceI
2 Acknowledgementii
3 Abstractiii
4 List of the tablesiv
5 Acronyms and abbreviationsv
2.1aStatement of the problem2
2.1 bObjectives  of the study2
2.1.cScope of the term paper2
2.1 dSource and research method3
2.1 eDefinition3
2.1 fLimitations3
72.2 Main Body4
2.2 aClassification of fruit plants4
2.2 bSignificant of fruit plants4
2.2 cFruit plants and it’s diversity4
2.2 dFruit plants and its’ diversity are shown through picture11-27
2.2 eCauses  the extinction  of fruit plants28
2.2 f Available and Non-available fruit Plants in Bangladesh29-34
2.2 gThe necessity  and importance of the conservation of  fruit plants35
83.3 aMain steps are taken by Govt. to  conserve the fruit plants36
93.3 bResearch findings36
103.3 cRecommendations37
113.3 dConclusion38
123.3 e Bibliography38

2.1   Introduction of the Diversity of Fruit Plants in Bangladesh

There is a lot of diversity of the fruit plants in the Asian countries especially in South Asia. There is no such diversity in the world. More than 400 types of fruit plants grow in the Asian countries. Among them most fruit plants grow in the South Asian countries. The weather of the South Asian countries is very helpful for the diversity of fruit plants. About More than 50 types of primitive fruit plants originated from South Asia. Minimum 20 fruits are cultivated here commercially. There are many types of fruits those are wild but we can eat them as food item and these fruits varies by their tastes. About 55 percent  of the total fruits are  wild and people do not cultivate them.

The unconventional fruits have plenty of food values. These fruits also can be the source of nutrition and they have also preventive power against disease. So it should be our noble duty to conserve the fruit plants from extinction.

2.1 a  Statement of the problem:

Every country has needed 25% forest land of the total. But our forest is destroyed by the increasing population, house, industry and land is used for cultivation by destroying forest. But forest is very essential part for environmental equilibrity which is very essential for human health. If forest is destroyed promptly we will be also lost our fruit Plants. Because most of them are wild fruits plant. Most of the people of our country are very poor. They almost depend on fruit Plants for their earnings, to treat as food item to treat their disease. From the ancient time man uses different types of fruit Plants such as fruit, root, leaf, stem, bark, flower etc to treat some disease such as dysentery, diarrhea, cold etc. But at present this plants are not found for their destroying in several way. To solve this problem we should take a proper action to conserve the diversification of fruit Plants.

2.1 b  Objectives of this study:

Fruit plants are one of the best natural resource of Bangladesh. It is very much related to our health culture. 100% populations of our country are directly or indirectly depend on fruit plants for their food value.

on the basis of our socio-economic and  vast uses of fruit plants, the main objective of this study are as follow-

  1. To know about the diversity of fruit plants
  2. To save the existence of fruit culture.
  3. To introduce our native/ local fruits to our future generation.

2.1 c Scope of the term paper:

Plants especially fruit plants play a significant role in human being. They have several scopes in researching aspects.

আরো পড়ুন:  বাংলাদেশের পাখির পূর্ণাঙ্গ তালিকা হচ্ছে সাত শতাধিক প্রজাতির নামের তালিকা

But in short time all aspects of motion is very difficult. In this term paper the following scope are described.

  1. Habitual and usable diversification of Fruit plants.
  2. Identifying the causes of diversity.
  3. Solve & Recommendation of the problem.

2.1 d Source and research method:

Due to scarcity of time, I could not collect data form primary source. It includes data and information of various secondary sources. Relevant books, magazines, essays, newspaper etc. have acted as source of data and information.

The technique of writing review article has been followed on the basis of collected data. Yet, in light of our knowledge and experience own conception has also been applied here.   

2.1 e.  Definitions:

The words or term which are used in this term paper are defined below-
Fruit: Only those types of fruits which can be eaten by human being
Bangladesh: Means the whole area of the country which have independence and sovereignty.
Habitat: It means the environment/ place which the plants are grown.
Conservation: This term is used to means the conservation of fruit plants.
Diversity: It means the difference among the fruit plants on the basis of the genetical, environmental and morphological structure.
Pharmacology: The subject in which description is written about the fruit plants.

2.1 f Limitations:

This term paper has been prepared as a supplementary part of 108 Foundation Training course. Due to scarcity of time, I could not understand field level research and follow survey and hypothetical method of fundamental research.

Shortage of time and lack of adequate publication was important constraint for the preparation of the term paper. Lack of fundamental research, we are unable to find out the real English version name of all the local fruits.

2.2  Main Body

2.2.a   Classification of fruit plants

According to the shape and size fruit plants are several types.

we have divided the fruit plants from their family and we use the scientific and local name of the fruits

  1. Family:
  2. Scientific name
  3. Local name

2.2. b   Significant of fruit plants :-

In human life the significant of fruit plants is unlimited. We get not only the food, grain, dal, oil, fibre, wood, vegetable fruit but also get disease protected medicine from plants. Fruit plants have a very valuable role to protect several diseases.

2.2.c   Fruit plants and it’s diversity:

There are about 130 fruit plants in our country. Most of them are grown in natural environment on the basis of their habitat. Most of them are grown in different place and environment for their adaptation capacity : In below a table is presented on the diversity of fruit plants.

Table -01 : The list of fruit plants on their diversity.

SL No. ক্রমEnglish or Common NameBangla Local Name  বাংলা নামScientific Name    বৈজ্ঞানিক নামFamily Name    পরিবারের নাম
01MangoআমMangifera indica L.Anacardiaceae
02 বন আমMangifera sylvatica
03 দেশি আমড়াSpondias Manigifera
04 বিলাতি আমড়াSpondias dulcis
05 কাজু বাদামAnacordiam Occidentale
06 ননিফলMorinda citrifolia
07 চিরঞ্জিBuchanania lanzan
08 ভোলাটুকিSomecarpus anacordium
09Custard appleআতাAnona reticulataAnonaceae
10Soursopটক আতাAnona Muricata
11Sugar appleশরিফাAnona Squamosa
12 হামজামPolyanthia suberosa
13 মুড়মুড়িPolyalthia Suberosa
14 বড়সানে, ছোটসানেMelodorum fructicosum
15 আঁকুরাAlangium SalvifoliumAlangiaceac
16 করমচাcavissa carandasApocynaocac
17 মিষ্টি করমচাCarissa Ovata
18 লতা আমWillughbea edulis
19 কামরাঙাAverrhoa  CarambolaAxalidaceae
20 বিলিম্বিAverrhoa bilimbi
21 বাওয়ালী ফলSarcolobus globosusAsclapiadaceae
22 অরবরইPhyllanthus acidus Euphorbiaceae
23 আমলকিEmblica officinalis
24 কুমকইBridelia retusa
25 তিমতোয়াAntidesma ghesaembilla
26 লটকনBaccaurea ramiflora
27Fox nutমাখনাEuryale feroxUrilaceae
28 দেশি গাবDiospyros perigrinaEbenaceae
29 গাব গুলাবDiospyros toposia
30 বহরিCordia dichotomaEthraceae
31 কালোজাEthritia acminata
32 জলফইElaeocarpus floribundusElaeocarpaceae
33 জলপাইOlea europeaOliaceae
34 কাঠবাদামTerminalia catappaCombretaceae
35 বহেরাTerminalia belerica
36 হরিতকিTerminalia chebula
37 পেঁপেCarica papayaCaricaceae
38 মধুমালতীStixis SuaveolensCapridaceae
39WatermelonতরমুজCitrullus VulgarisCucerbitaceae
40 বাঙ্গি, ফুটিCucumis melo
41 শসাCucumis Sativa
42 কাঁকুড়Cucumis melo var flexuosus
43 চিনারCucumis melo var Conomon
44 মারফাCucumis melo var reticulatus
45 বিলাতী গাবGarcinia mangostanaGuttifereae
46 কাউফলGarcinia-Cowa
47 ডেওফলGarcinia tinctoria
48 তৈকরGarcinia pedunculata
49 পানিফলTrapa bicornisTrapaceae
50Water caltropসিঙ্গাড়া ফলTrapa natans
51 ফলসাGrewia asiaticaTiliaceae
52 পিছন্দিMicrocos paniculata
53 ধামিন আসারGrewia tiliafolia
54Elephant appleচালতাDillenia indicaDilleniaceae
55 কারকেটাDillenia pentagyna
56 পদ্মফলNilumbo nuciferaNilambonaceae
57 নারিকেলCocos nuciferaPalmae
58 খেজুরPhoenix sylvestris
59 হেতাল খেজুরPhoenix paludosa
60 তালBorassus flabelliformis
61 সুপারিAreca catechu
62 গোলফলNipa fruiticans
63 বেতফলCalamus spp
64 প্যাসন/ট্যাং ফলPassiflora edulis var flavicarapaPacifloraceae
65 ডালিমPunica granatumPunicaceae
66 বৈঁচিFlacourtia indicaFlacortaceae

67 লুকলুকিFlacourtia jangomas
68 আনারসAnanas sativusBromaliaceae
69 আংগুরVitis veniferaVitaceae
70 কলাMusa spp.Musaceae
71 চুকুরHibisxus subdariffaMalvaceae
72 পেয়ারাPisidium guajavaMyrtaceae
73 গোলাপজামSyzygium jambos
74 জামSyzygium Cuminii
75 কাকজামSyzygium fruiticosa
76 পানিজামSyzygium Cordatum
77 খুদিজামSyzygium fruiticosum
78 বুটিজাম/টেপাজামClcisocalyx operculatus
79 নলিজামSyzygium claviflorum
80 বনজামSyzygium macrocarpa
81 জামরুলSyzygium Samarangense
82 জাবটিকাবাMyrciaria Cauliflora
83 রক্তগোলাHaematocarpus validus
84 ফুটকি, দাঁতরাঙাMelastoma malabathricumMelastomaceae
85 কাঁঠালArtocarpus heterophyllusMoraceae
86 ডেউয়াArtocarpus lakoocha
87 রুটি ফলArtocarpus altilis
88 চাম ফলArtocarpus chapasha
89 তুঁতMorus nigra/rubra
90 ডুমুরFicus carica
91 যজ্ঞডুমুরFicus glomerate
92 শানতোলSandoricum indicum
93 বরইZizyphus jujubaRamnaceae
94 কুলZizyphus mauritiana
95 বন বরইZizyphus rugosa
96 শিয়াল কুলZizyphus oenoplia
97 মন ফলRandia spinosaRubiaceae
98 পিরালুRandia uliginosa
99 আদা জামিরCitrus assamensisRutaceae
100 করুন জামিরCitrus SP
101 কাটা জামিরCitrus SP
102 জারা লেবুC. aurantifolia
103 কাগজী লেবুCitrus aurantifolia
104 সাত করাCitrus macroptera
105 কলসিলেবুCitrus SP
106 গন্ধরাজ লেবুCitrus SP
107 এলাচ লেবুCitrus SP
108 শরবতি লেবুC. Limet toides
109 নারিকেলি লেবুC. aurantifolia
110 বাতাবি লেবুC. grandis
111 কমলা লেবুC. sinensis, C. reticulata
112 বন নেবুParamigyna citrifolia
113 বেলAegle marmelos
114 কদবেলFeronia limonia
115 নাশপাতিPyrus communisRosaceae
116 স্ট্রবেরিFragaria vesca
117 পীচPrunus persica
118 অ্যাভোকেডোPersea americanaLoraceae
119 আঁশফলEuphoria longanaSapindaceae
120 লিচুLitchi chinensis
121 রাম্বুটানNephelium lappaceum
***KhirniখিরনিManilkara hexandraSapotaceae
122SapodillaসফেদাAchras Zapota
123Mahuwaমহুয়াMadhuca indica
124 জামান ফলPouteria Campechiana
125 তারকা ফলChrysophyllum Cainito
126 বকুলMimusops elengi
127 তেঁতুলTamarindus indicaSisalpinaceae
128 জিলাপি ফলPithecellobium dulec
129 সিহার ফলBauhinia vahlii
130 জংলী বা বাক্সবাদামSterculia foetidaSterculiaceae
131 মুলা ফলFermiana colorata
132 ড্রাগণ ফলHyloceveus Sp.Cactus
133 লালিম  
134 পাদফল  
135 চিকান  
136 টুকটুকি  
137 পানকিচুনকি  
138 উড়িআম  
139 আমঝুম  
140 তিন করা  
141 কাজুবাদাম  
142 পেস্তাবাদাম  

2.2.d. Fruit Plants of Bangladesh are shown through picture with very short description:

1. Jackfruit is the national fruit of Bangladesh. This fruit is very popular among people to monkeyes of the country.

আরো পড়ুন:  লিচু ফল-এর আটটি ভেষজ গুণাগুণ
কাঁঠালের পাতা ও ফল, আলোকচিত্র: Shahnoor Habib Munmun, CC-BY-3.0

2. Soursop or Annona muricata is a vulnerable fruits of Bangladesh.

টক আতা, আলোকচিত্র: Judgefloro

3. Coconut is very popular all over the country.

নারকেল গাছের ফল ও পাতা, আলোকচিত্র: Diego Torres Silvestre

2.2.e Causes of  the extinction of fruit Plants :

  1. Transferable cultivation & human influence
  2. Illegal disection of plants
  3. Excessive use in the brick field as fuel
  4. Wasteful & uncontrol consumption of plants
  5. Agricultural use of forestry and water resources.
  6. Destruction of herbal plants in some cases due to invisible reason.
  7. Lack of forest conservation act and their proper application.
  8. Pressure of high number of population on the forest.
  9. Highly grazing
  10. Destruction of pollinators by human .
  11. Habitat destruction.

2.2.f   Available and non-available fruit plants in Bangladesh :

There is  a lot of fruit plants in our country. But almost 10% of them are going to be extincted for the lack of proper conservation policy and scientific used. In below the list of available, vulnerable, endangered critically endangered extinct and data deficient fruit Plants are mention.

Table -02 : List of the available  vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered, extinct and Data deficient fruit plants in Bangladesh. Here “P” is the position of availability status.

Sl.NoLocal Name in Bangla   বাংলা নামAvailable সুলভVulnerable সংকটাপন্নEndangered বিপদাপন্নCritically Endangered বিপন্নExtinct বিলুপ্তData deficient
2বন আমP     
3দেশি আমড়া  P   
04বিলাতি আমড়াP     
05কাজু বাদাম  P   
07চিরঞ্জি   P  
08ভোলাটুকি   P  
10টক আতা P    
12হামজাম P    
13মুড়মুড়ি P    
14বড়সানে,ছোটসানে  P   
15আঁকুরা  P   
17মিষ্টি করমচা P    
18লতা আম  P   
20বিলিম্বি P    
21বাওয়ালি ফলP     
22অরবরই P    
24কুমকই P    
28দেশিগাব P    
29গাব গুলাব P    
31কালোজা P    
32জলফই P    
38মধুমালতি P    
43চিনার   P  
45বিলাতি গাবP     
47ডেওফল P    
48তৈকর   P  
50সিঙ্গাড়া ফল   P  
51ফলসা   P  
52পিছন্দি   P  
53ধামিন আসার   P  
55কারকেটা P    
59হেতাল খেজুরP     
62গোল ফলP     
63বেত ফলP     
64প্যাসন/ট্যাং ফল P    
66বৈঁচি   P  
71চুকুর     P
75কাকজাম     P
76পানিজাম   P  
77খুদিজাম   P  
78বুটিজাম/টেপাজাম    P 
79নলিজাম P    
80বনজাম P    
82জাবটিকাবা   P  
83রক্তগোলা     P
87ব্রেড ফ্রুট  P   
88চাম ফলP     
90ডুমুর P    
91যজ্ঞডুমুর P    
92শানতোল P    
95বন বরই P    
96শিয়াল কুল P    
98পিরালু   P  
99আদা জামিরP     
100করুন জামির P    
101কাটা জামির P    
102জারা লেবু P    
103কাগজী লেবুP     
105কলসি লেবু  P   
106গন্ধরাজ লেবুP     
107এলাচ লেবু P    
108শরবতি লেবুP     
109নারিকেলী লেবু P    
110বাতাবী লেবুP     
111কমলা লেবুP     
112বন নেবু P    
117পীচ  P   
118অ্যাভোকেডো P    
119আঁশফল  P   
121রাম্বুটান  P   
123মহুয়া P    
124জামান ফল P    
125তারকা ফল  P   
128জিলাপি ফলP     
129সিহার ফল P    
130জংলি বাদাম P    
131মুলা ফল P    
132ড্রাগণ ফল  P   
133লালিম   P  
134পাদফল   P  
135চিকান   P  
136টুকটুকি   P  
137পানকিচুনকি   P  
138উড়িআম   P  
139আমঝুম   P  
140তিন করা   P  
141কাজু বাদাম  P   
142পেস্তা বাদাম  P   

2.2.g   The necessity and importance of  the conservation of fruit plants :

We should conserve the fruit plants for the next generation to use them.

The necessity and importance of conservation of fruit plants in Bangladesh are as follows.

  1. For protect natural equilibrium: From the primitive stage of the world, nature produces a biodiversity for a specific area for equilibrium. That natural equilibrity is destroyed by the destruction of any species of that place and natural environment is fallen in much disaster. Fruit plants are one of the parts of biodiversity. So they have great contribution.
  2. To protect future probable food items:

We may get highly valuable food items from some fruit plants in future which help our next generations to treat as food and other items. So far the probable future we should conserve the fruit plants.

  1. To protect genetic germplasm:

Fruit Plants are useful and they contain the zene that are very important for the germplasm . So we should conserve it .

  1. For kinetic ecosystem and evolution:

Every biodiversity supply  the kinetic  energy to the  ecosystem which  help to evolutes the species. So we should conserve the biodiversity to protect our ecosystem.

  1. To protect sound environment:

Plants play an important role to protect the natural disaster. Fruit plants also play this role.

  1. For economic development:

Uses of fruit plants by scientific method can help a great development in economy. So we should manage the appropriate use of them.

3.3.a    Main step taken by Govt. to conserve the diversification of fruit plants are as follows

  1. Taken membership of SACEP
  2. Assigned the IUCN (Now converted into WCU) regulatory Act to conserve fruit plants.
  3. Policy taken for 20 years to conserve plants.
  4. Formation of National Forest policy Act 1994.
  5. Tree plantation observed from 1stJune to 31st August every year.
  6. Advertise through radio, television and other media for awareness of people.
  7. Establish of National Botanical Garden, National Eco Park to conserve the wild life.

3.3.b  Research Findings:

  1. Most of the fruit plants are on the way of extinction.
  2. Due to modern science and technology, men are giving less importance to fruit plants.
  3. Diversity of fruit plants is becoming destroyed due to change of environment.
  4. Problems of marketing.
  5. Lack of knowledge on fruit value on fruit plants.

3.3.c  Recommendations :

It is the responsibility of all concerned people from peasants to president to preserve ecology simultaneously to conserve the biodiversity. Fruit plants are one of the part of biodiversity. Probable path to conserve the diversity of fruit plants are as follows.

  1. Usefulness of fruit plants should be publicized by Govt. NGOs and personally through radio, Television and other media.
  2. To save the forest for conserving the fruit plants.
  3. A specific division should be established in BNH to know the fruit plants easily.
  4. To established at least one fruits valley in each and every garden of every district specially for fruit plants for Zene Bank.
  5. The use of land should be planned on the basis of the destruction of forest.
  6. Proper management of the use of plants is necessary.
  7. To Supply the books on fruit plants in every public library and regarded sector.

3.3.d  Conclusion :

Fruit plants not only give us food but also protect our environmental disequilibrity. To save the diversity of fruit plants are to save ourselves. We have to save  the fruit plants to develop our environment and keep the existence of native fruits long live. We have to manage the use of fruit plants some how to think of its significance. Other wise our future generation cannot be benefited by it. We should make our life comfortable considering the condition of future generations to come.

3.3.e    Bibliography :

  1. Banglar Bichitro Fal, Mrityunjoy Roy, Dibyaprakash, Dhaka.
  2. Biodiversity and Conservation, Hasan Md Abdul, Hasan book House, Dhaka.
  3. Vasoge Biggan, Goni, Abdul, Bangla Academy, Dhaka.
  4. Dijen sharma, Shamoly Nisorgo, Bangla Academy, Dhaka. .
  5. Mokarom Hossen, Bangladesher ful o fal, Samay Prakasan, Dhaka.
  6. Bangladesher Proyozonio Gash Gashra, Tapon Dey, Forest Division, Comilla.
  7. Plants Name of Bangladesh Huq. A. M- Bangladesh National Harbariums.
  8. World Flowers of Bangladesh, the University press Ltd, Bangladesh.
  9. Bangla Pedia, Bangladesh Asiatic Society.
  10. Ortho o shasther jonno udbhid- Kayes Md Mizanur Rahman.
  11. Dr. Md. Mamunur Rashid, Fuler Chas, Dibyaprakash, Dhaka.

2 thoughts on “Diversity of the numerous Fruit Plants of Bangladesh”

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