Diversity of the Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh.

Chapter 4

Problems and prospects of Medicinal Plants in Bangladesh:

4.1. Introduction:

The Medicinal plants of Bangladesh is facing many types of problems. The main problem is the loss of habitat. Thousands of hactors of land is coming to agriculture and industrialisation for the increasing of population. So many plants are facing the problems of extinction. But we can see some bright prospects also. Some plants are exported to the foreign countries.

4.2. Causes of the declination of medicinal Plant :

  1. Transferable cultivation & human influence.
  2. Illegal dissections of plants.
  3. Excessive use in the brick field as fuel.
  4. Wasteful & uncontrolled consumption of plant.
  5. Agricultural use of forestry and water resources.
  6. Destruction of herbal plant in some cases due to invisible reason.
  7. Lack of forest conservation act and their proper application.
  8. Pressure of high number of population on the forests.
  9. Highly grazing and browsing.
  10. Destruction of pollinators by human.
  11. Habitat destruction.
  12. Agricultural use of forestry and water resources.
  13. Disawareness of people.
  14. Lack of management.

4.3. Nearly extinct medicinal plants in Bangladesh:

Once there was a lot of medicinal plant in our country. But almost 50% of them are extinct for the lack of proper conservation policy and scientific used. In below the list of nearly extinct medicinal plants are mentions. Research shows 95 species of plants at least are at stake at different stage International Convention of Trade of endangered species which is supported by 140 countries including Bangladesh, controls Trade of different plants and animals. The data   of the convention shows that the our orchid and medicinal plants are extremely endangered species. For massive distroy of orchid during collection of timber and indiscriminate collection of medicinal plants they are reducing.

In below some of local name of nearly extincted. medicinal plants are mention :

Table 10: List of the  nearly extinct medicinal plants in Bangladesh

Sl No.Plant GroupLocal Name
01Plain and crop land plantSadamorog, Sialkata, Kukra, Dondokolos, Kulekhari, Kulomagis, Noapata, Panicula, Futki Kusumukul.
02Plant beside the path and surrounding the Home.Indrojob, Mohavringoraj, Chalta, Roktodron, Pitraj, Dumur, Bishfall, Hazarbeli, Nisinda.
03Forest and Hill Tracts Areas Plant.Bonranga, Paharikus, Bontulshi, Dolshmutra, Isobgul, Mutmunda, Marishal, Bonada,
04.Fresh Water and Waterloging Plant.Sadapana, Soal, Holdapana, Panikapur.

Source : Ahmed 1997, Khan & Huq. 1995

আরো পড়ুন:  রুদ্রাক্ষ হচ্ছে এশিয়ার জনপ্রিয় ও ঔষধি উদ্ভিদ

In Red Data Book it is mentioned that there are 106 number of plant are endangered. Among them 8 plant are medicinal. They are enlisted below :

Table  11 : List of endangered plant in Red Data Book.

SL NoScientific NameLocal Name
01Andrographis peniculatiকালোমেঘ/Kalomegh
02Rouwolfia serpentinaসর্পগন্ধা/Sorpogondha
03Terminalia citrinaহরিতকি/Horitoki
04Cycas pectinataUnknown
05Dioscorea prazeriUnknown
06Cymbidium aloifoliumUnknown
07Amomum costatumUnknown
08Zingiber roseumUnknown

Below, we get total 30 numbers of vulnerable plants species. These are 1. Bonada, 2. Bontulshi, 3. Bonranga, 4. Bishfall, 5. Chalta, 6. Dondokolos, 7. Dumur, 8. Dolshmutra, 9. Futki, 10. Hazarbeli 11. Holdapana, 12. Isobgul, 13. Indrojob, 14. Kukra, 15. Kulekhari, 16. Kulomages, 17. Kusumukul, 18. Mohauringoraj, 19. Mutmunda 20. Marishal, 21. Noapata, 22. Nisinda 23. Panicula, 24. Pitrej, 25. Paharikus, 26. Pamkapur, 27. Roktodron, 28. Sadamorog, 29.  Sialkata, 30.  Sadapana. Source : Ahmed 1997, Khan & Huq 1995

4.4. The necessity and importance of conservation of medicinal plants:

We should conserve the medicinal plant for the next generation to use them.

The necessity and importance of conservation of medicinal plant in Bangladesh are as follows.

1. For protect natural equilibrium: A biodiversity for a specific area for natural equilibrium. That natural equilibrium is destroyed by the destruction of any species of that place and natural environment is fallen in much disaster. Medicinal plant is one of the past of biodiversity. So they have great contribution. For this purpose, we need to cultivate medicinal plants.

2. To protect future probability: We may get highly valuable medicine from some medicinal plant in future which help our next generations to treat chronic disease. So far the probable future we should conserve the medicinal plant.

3. To protect genetic germplasm: Medicinal plants are useful and they contain the zene that are very importance for the germplasm. So we should conserve it.

4. For kinetic ecosystem and evolution: Every biodiversity supply the kinetic energy to the ecosystem which helps to evaluate the species. So we should conserve the biodiversity to protect our ecosystems.

5. To protect sound environment: Plant plays an important role to protect the natural disaster. Medicinal plant also plays this role. So we need to conserve the ecosystems in which Medicinal plants grow.

আরো পড়ুন:  শ্বেত চন্দন গাছের ষোলোটি ঔষধি ব্যবহার

6. For economic development: Uses of medicinal plant by scientific method can help a great development in economics. So we should manage the appropriate use of them.

4.5. Step taken by Govt. to conserve the diversification of medicinal plants:

Bangladeshi govt. has taken few stepts to conserve the diversification of medicinal palnts are as follows:

  1. Taken membership of SACEP
  2. Assigned the IUCN (Now converted into WCU) regulatory Act to conserve medicinal plant.
  3. Policy taken for 20 years to conserve plant.
  4. Formation of National Forest policy Act 1994.
  5. Tree plantation observed from 1st June to 31st August every year.
  6. Advertise through radio, television and other media for awareness of people.
  7. Establish of National Botanical Garden and National Eco Park to conserve the wild life.

4.6.  Prospect of Medicinal Plants in Bangladesh.

Industry people said  that herbal medicines are set to witness an investment boost as over 20 companies have lined up for licences from the drug administration to manufacture such medicines to exploit business potentials in the sector, still almost untapped,.

A senior official of Directorate of Drug Administration told The Daily Star that A new avenue for herbal medicine has opened up as many investors are looking for venturing in making such medicines

Officials said the drug regulator has received nearly two dozens of applications seeking approval to make herbal medicine. Of the applicants, four got licence  and around 20 companies are awaiting approval.

“So far we have cleared four applications. We are also in process of giving approval to some more companies,” the official added.

The latest approval was given to Radiant Nutraceuticals Ltd, which is set to join the foray with three existing operators – Square, ACME and Modern – with Square Herbal and Nutraceuticals being the pioneer in the segment.

According to World Health Organisation (WHO), as many as 80 percent of world’s people rely on traditional medicines for their primary healthcare and remedies, and the use of traditional medicines is rising in the developed economies such as Europe and America.

Industry people said the global market for medicinal plant products is estimated to be more than $60 billion a year.

আরো পড়ুন:  রাম ভেন্ডি বাংলাদেশে জন্মানো উপকারী বীরুৎ

At present, China and India supply bulk of the plant drugs demand to the global market.

In Bangladesh, demand for herbal medicine is also on the rise.

Industry insiders said allopathic pharma market in Bangladesh is worth around Tk 4,000 crore, while the market size for herbal medicines including Ayurvedic and Unani stands at more than Tk 1,000 crore.

Industry people observed that scopes to exploit the untapped herbal medicine now lure investors to the segment with majority of applications coming from new investors along with allopathic drug makers.

Stakeholders said some of the well-known allopathic drug makers are gearing up for establishing herbal medicine units.

The sector started pulling attention after the government had endorsed herbal medicine in the drug policy along with two other traditional branches of medicine- Ayurvedic and Unani.

Later the sector received a further boost as the government termed herbs and herbal medicine as one of the five priority sectors to diversify the country’s export basket.

Industry people observed that Bangladesh has prospect in making footsteps on the global market for medicinal plant and products as nearly 650 medicinal plant species have been identified to be in use in Bangladesh with around 25 plants having high value.

Sector people said herbal medicine differs from Ayurvedic and Unani medicines due to its unique manufacturing process, although all the three branches of medicine depend mainly on medicinal plants.

“Our manufacturing process is different from Ayurvedic and Unani. We also use modern technology,” said Asad of Square Herbal, which has so far launched 8 medicinal products.

To push the sector forward, the drug administrator has recently set a definition for herbal medicine and selected a set of reference books for manufacturers to follow while making herbal medicines.

The regulator has also finalised testing criteria to boost the sector and expedite the process of giving approval to the prospective licence seekers.

industry people said that the licence awarding process was slow earlier in absence of a definition, testing criteria and reference,

The official of the Drug Administration Said that Finalisation of these criteria will assist us to clear the applications faster to help grow the sector in a disciplined manner.

Please click on the 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 Page Numbers below to read the full Paper of the Diversity of Fruit Plants in Bangladesh.

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